26 Desember 2011

Contoh Jurnal Bahasa Inggris


JURNAL BAHASA INGGRIS
IMPROVING SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING SERIES OF PICTURE
By: Erwin Hari Kurniawan
Abstract:
The problems of this research were how to improve speaking ability using series of picture and how to motivate the students to speak English. The research was guided by a conceptual framework leading to the using series of pictures through pair work to improve their motivation to speak English during the process of classroom communication interaction. The research type was an action research. The subject consisted of 20 students of the third special class of SMP Ar Risalah Kediri in 2007-2008 academic years. The research data were collected using test (test after first treatment and test after the second treatment), observation for collecting data on the students’ motivation in improving speaking ability using series pictures. Data on speaking ability using series of picture were analyzed using the descriptive and statistic analysis, using the increasing of mean after the first and the second treatment. The study concluded that using series of pictures through pair work as a teaching strategy variation has brought a new nuance in English language teaching in improving their ability to speak English.
Abstrak
Masalah dari penelitian ini adalah bagaimana meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara mengunakan gambar berseri, dan bagaimana memotivasi siswa dalam berbicara bahasa inggris. Penelitian ini dilatar belakangi oleh konsep kerangka penting pada penggunaan gambar berseri melalui kelompok belajar untuk meningkatkan motivasi mwereka untuk berbicara bahasa inggis selama proses interaksi komunikasi di kelas. Jenis penelitian ini adalah menggunakan CAR. Subyek penelitian ini terdiri atas 20 orang siswa pada kelas IX-A, SMP Ar Risalah Kediri tahun ajaran 2007-2008. Data penelitian dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan tes (tes sesudah perlakuan pertama dan tes sesudah perlakuan kedua) ini, pengamatan untuk mendapatkan data pada motivasi siswa pada peningkatan kemampuan berbicara dengan mengunakan gambar berseri. Data pada kemampuan berbicara menggunakan gambar berseri diananalisa menggunakan descripsi dan analisa statistik menggunakan peningkatan nilai rata-rata siswa sesudah  treatmen dan kedua. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa penggunaan gambar berseri melalui kelompok belajar sesebagai variasi strategi mengajar telah membawa suatu nuansa baru dalam pembelajaran bahasa inggris dalam peningkatan kemampuan mereka untuk berbicara bahasa inggris.
1.                  BACKGROUND
Students’ learning outcome, which is still considered as unsuccessful, has always been the focus of criticism towards the failure of teaching of English in Indonesia. As a consequence English teachers are demanded to be responsible for the failure in making the students capable of using English for communication both productively and receptively. To alleviate this ordeal, educators, practitioners, and policy makers quite often pay very much attention to research dealing with the curriculum, methodology and teachers excluding such significant variables as the learner perspective. They have rarely taken the learner perspective into consideration as a very important contribution to the learning process.
Does the failure have any relations to these factors? Some English textbooks written for young learners seem to neglect these factors. As a matter of fact, many research findings have shown the powerful role of the students in improving their learning outcome.
Teaching speaking in Indonesia is considered to be the most difficult, pronunciation, structure, discourse, and the social context of culture and situation. In short, it needs the mastery of the linguistic and the cultural competence. Besides, as speaking is difficult, more effort is required on the part of the students and teachers. It is not enough for the students to listen or to speech only. The teachers need to give the students’ activities to practice the new speech among the four basic skills of language. Bourdons in Nunan (1993) stated that spoken language needs the mastery of vocabulary habit. This means that practice speaking needs much time to fulfil the requirements of the mastery of spoken English, either from school or the environment.
Teaching English at Junior High School in Indonesia as stated in Curriculum 2004 revised in 2006 covers abilities four aspecs of language. One of them is speaking ability. Paultson and Brunder (1975) stated that the objective of the language teaching is the production of the speaker’s competence to communicate in the target language. Rivers (1968) stated that the teacher should give the students opportunities to practice speaking. She further stated that if the students are able to practice the new speech habit throughout as the children do in his native language, the problem of speaking fluency of foreign language would be lessened.
Teaching speaking at Junior High School in Indonesia is one of the main focuses in the English teaching. Therefore the English teachers should find out the effort on searching and creating a new model in presenting materials, in order to increase speaking ability.
Based on the background above, the researcher formulates the following research questions: (1) Do the students have high motivation in speaking English using series of picture?; (2) Does the use of series of pictures through pair work significantly improve their ability to speak English?
Related to the problem statement above, the objective of this research is then specified: (1) to know about the effectiveness of using series of pictures in improving their motivation to speak English through pair work; (2) to know about the effectiveness of using series of pictures through pair work in improving their ability to speak English.
The result of this research is expected to be useful information to: (1) increase the teachers’ knowledge of English and share experiences in improving speaking ability using series of picture; (2) encourage the teachers’ colleagues in doing action research in improving their teaching as the professional practices; (3) give any contribution to the general public in increasing knowledge concerning about classroom action research and get any reflection for being perfection.
This research is done by the subject of the students of the third class of SMP Ar Risalah Kediri using series of pictures through pair work to improve their ability to speak English. The researcher focused his research in improving speaking ability and the students’ motivation in the process of teaching and learning using series of picture. The topics or themes used were: (1) Global warming; (2) Daily activity. Series of pictures through pair work were used to attract and encourage the students to improve their ability to construct their understanding and the ability to speak English and help the teacher to present the materials.
2.                  THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The researcher found some studies had been conducted using the students’ own picture through pair work in improving their ability to speak English. Some of them: (1) Rahman, Aulia (2007) in his research stated that  teaching speaking here is how teacher can give a good theme to the students, the theme must make students fill happy so they will give attention all times during the teaching process. The learning and teaching of a second or foreign language is a complex process. Learning is “Acquiring or getting of knowledge of subject or skill by study, experience, or instruction.” Similarly, teaching, which is implied in the first definition of learning, may be defined as. “Showing of helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand.” Teaching can not be defined apart from learning. (2) Westnood, Peter and Oliver (1975) stated that in improving oral language there are four ways should be considered in which teachers sometimes operate to restrict language development or indeed at times train students not to listen but to speak; (3) Hergenhalm in Elliott (1996) stated that good teaching begins with knowing what you want to teach: the stimuli, you must also identify the responses you want to connect to the stimuli and timing of appropriate satisfiers. (4) Hulse in Elliott (1996) on the effective teaching and effective learning stated that feedback or reinforcement of asking question is very important. It is a powerful tool of controlling behaviour of the students. If you praise students’ correct responses immediately and the students increase correct responses; (5) Erna (2006) in his research stated the way of teaching speaking as follow: The stages of teaching and learning speaking is divided into three stages which commonly known as presentation, practice, and production. (5) Nunan (1993) distinguished between motor-perceptive skills, which are concerned with correctly using the sounds and structures of the language, and interactional skills, which involve using motor-perceptive skills was all that one needed in order to communicate successfully. Besides, he suggested that, in particular, learners need to develop skills in the management of interaction involves such things as knowing when and how to take the floor, when to introduce a topic or change the subject, how to invite someone else to speak, how to keep a conversation going, when and how to terminate the conversation and so on.
Speaking lesson can follow the usual pattern of preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, and extension. The teacher can use the preparation step to observe, draw, and establish a context for speaking task on certain objects and things (where, when, why, with whom it will occur) and to initiate awareness of speaking skill to be targeted. In presentation, the teacher can provide learners with a reproduction model that furthers learner comprehension and help them become more attentive observers of language use. Practice involves learners in reproducing the target structure, usually in controlled or highly supported manner. Evaluation involves directing attention to the skill being examined and asking learners to monitor and assess their own progress. Finally, extension consists of activities that ask learners to use strategy or skill in a different context or authentic communicative situation, or to integrate use of new skill or strategy with previously acquired ones (Brown, 1994).
Speaking function is the productive and interactive skill. (1) What is productive skill? With reference to usage, it is then perfectly true to say that speaking is productive and makes use of the aural medium. Widdowson (2003) described that the act of communication through speaking is commonly performed in face-to-face interaction and occurs as part dialogue or other forms of verbal exchange. What is said, therefore, is dependent on an understanding of what else has been said, whether by the speaker or the interlocutor in the interaction; (2) What is an interactive skill? Richards et al. (2000) stated that speaking is rarely done in one direction or in the form of monologue. It involves the participation of the listener. In an interactive communication, a speaker, and therefore the speaker also becomes a listener. Why series of pictures? A wise statement says ‘I hear I forget, I see I know, and I do I understand. This means that if we have learning experiences by observing, drawing, doing and also what our eyes see and catch most of the time will stay long in our memory. Therefore, the statement strengthens to improve speaking ability by using series of pictures as media to teach English. Pictures as visual aids will attract students’ attention, and motivate them to learn. In addition, using series of picture means that the students try to connect the plot in the picture to be a link of story.
Rahman, Aulia (2007) said that teaching showing pictures can make the students remember more, more impressed, more interested and more focused. Ways, ideas, and criteria of using series of pictures: (1) the techniques of using pictures have been around for centuries and have had its place in all approaches to language teaching. Through traditionally the purpose of using pictures has been to describe or illustrate a written or recorded passage (Wright, 1000 pictures 2) . Brown (2007) stated that picture can be used in many stages of the instructional process, to introduce and motivate study of new topics, to clarify misconceptions, to communicate basic information, and to evaluate student’s progress and achievement. Furthermore, he suggests some ways of using pictures for ensuring maximum students benefit from using them; (2) Using pictures can be an effective technique for any proficiencies level or language skill. The following is an example of how one picture can be used in improving speaking ability. To teach speaking where the students share personal experiences that somehow relate to what is happening in a picture they have been given and drawn; (3) In teaching English using pictures need some criteria: make sure pictures are clear and unambiguous; make sure pictures provide reason to communicate (an opportunity or challenge); make sure pictures are interesting, simple, accurate, useful, legitimate, and visible.
The resources of pictures may be from: newspapers, magazines, internet, and the teacher and students’ own drawing. As teaching English based on meaning-based approach has to achieve the goal of teaching that is communicative competence in which students are encourage to negotiate the meaning.
Westwood, Peter and Oliver (1979) stated the principles of oral language should the language program of teaching speaking be based on: (1) create an enjoyable, entertaining, social learning situation, which gives pleasure to the students; (2) keep the pair work activity; (3) arrange for fragment, intensive sessions in two or three short sessions daily; (4) ensure active participation remembering that it is what a student practices saying, not what he hears, that improves communicating ability; (5) have clearly defined, short term goals for each sessions: teaching a certain adjective, adverb, or conjunction: ‘and’ and’ but’; (6) observe the slow learners and give some degree of repetition and our learning if necessary; (7) use material such as practices and games to hold attention as the basis for language simulation; (8) use pleasure and praise as reinforces.
3.                  TEACHING COMMUNICATION SKILL THROUGH K - W - L MODEL.
 K–W–L stands for Know, Want, and Learn. It is teaching model that encourages students to have an active learning by activating their prior knowledge for anticipating the material that they are going to learn. It is also commonly used for teaching or developing reading, writing and speaking skills. There are three stages to K-W-L model as in the following: (1) Know, at this stage students need to activate their prior knowledge by observing, drawing, talking, writing about anything they know about the topic/object of the reading/speaking. Information collected at this stage, can be drawn or written on the piece of paper for everybody to see. If the students run out of ideas, they can start predicting information on more general categories; (2) Want, is students are encourage to ask question, think about what they want to say or present to speak from the series pictures. So student can make a list of sentences/questions in which the answer will be derived from the pictures. Such activity will give students reason to speak or explain the picture because they are eager to practice their English freely; (3) Learn, here is students describe series pictures and then they write down or retell anything that they have learned from the pictures. It is the time when they confirm their prediction from previous stages.
The teacher should know the characteristics of a successful speaking activity.  Characteristics of a successful speaking activity: (1) learners can speak a lot; (2) every participation is point; (3) having motivation and intention; (4) try to reduce the barrier in speaking such as: (1) shy to make mistake; (2) satisfied to be listeners; (3) giving no contribution. The teacher can eliminate those problems by doing speaking activities as like: (1) giving guided questions; (2) peer work; (3) question and answer drills; (4) retelling.
In assessing the spoken language, the assessor should pay attention to: (1) purpose and resources; (2) test types; (3) elicitation techniques of oral test; (4) marking; (5) test evaluation.
Peer work activities are the integral aspect of many teachers’ approach to language teaching. One of the easiest and the best ways of allowing all students in the class to speak English is to encourage peer work. Every student has partners to explain his/her picture in improving their ability to speak English and all the pair work activities take place at the same time.
Peer work activity consisted of dialogue, interview, giving correction and contribution. In the pair work activity, the students could explain the picture as in turn. It means that the interaction between one student and another might be carried out in the form of pair work, and Individual work activity can be in oral report or oral presentation, monologue, giving explanation, and describing pictures activity.
4.                  METHOD
The method used in this research was classroom action research focused on improving speaking ability using series of picture.
The subject of the research consisted of 20 students of the third class of SMP Ar Risalah Kediri in 2007-2008 academic year.
This research had one dependent variable and one independent variable: (1) the independent variable of this research was the teaching device using series of pictures through pair work. Using series of pictures means the pictures belong to the students (e.g. pictures taken from magazines and newspapers) or the pictures that the students had drawn by themselves. Pair work was a teaching technique/activity which allowed students to act in accordance with the assignment; (2) the dependent variable of this research was speaking ability. It was empirically by the students’ mastery of using series of picture which covered fluency, pronunciation, vocabulary, structure, discourse and the social context of speaking.
To collect data, the instruments to be used: (1) test consisted of pre-test, post-test, and formative test; (2) observation. Test after the first treatment and test after the second treatment administered to find out the improvement of the students’ speaking ability, the formative test was administered to measure about the improvement of their speaking ability from the cycle 1 and cycle 2. The observation was administered to measure the characteristics of the students towards the application of using series of pictures through pair work, and questionnaire was administered to support the data of the students’ improvement in speaking English ability.
5.                  DATA ANALYSIS
Before the treatment, students mean in speaking was 65.0. Then after the treatments, data on the students’ speaking skills were collected in line with the instruments (tests, questionnaires, and observation) and were analyzed using the scoring system, tabulating, percentage, classification, calculating the mean score, from the first treatment, the researcher got the mean of the students reached 68.3. Then after the second treatment, the mean increased to be 78.8. Based on the observation after the treatments, it indicated that among students had more selves confidences and had more participant in speaking.  The rating scale (band) used for measuring the improvement of the students’ speaking skill was taken from Sujiono (1992: 47):
Interval
First treatment
Second  treatment
Criteria
Number of Students
Percentage
Number of Students
Percentage
80-100
4
20.0
10
50.0
Very Good
70-79
5
25.0
10
50.0
Good
56-69
11
55.0
0
0.0
Fair
45-55
0
0.0
0
0.0
Less
0-44
0
0.0
0
0.0
Poor
Total
20
100
20
100


6.                   CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
6.1.            CONCLUSION
Based on the findings and discussion in the previous parts, the following conclusions are:
(1)   The implementation of teaching English in this action research using series of pictures through pair work as teaching strategy could nurture the students’ motivation in improving their ability to speak English both at the first cycle and second cycle;
(2) The use of series of pictures through pair work as teaching strategy could improve speaking ability significantly. This led to the conclusion that using of series of pictures through pair work as a teaching strategy is a need in English language teaching and learning in improving their ability to speak English in the term of vocabulary, grammar, discourse, and their performance based on the context of situation. It has brought a good nuance and variation in English language teaching particularly in teaching speaking ability.
6.2.            SUGGESTIONS
The first is addressed to the third class of SMP Ar Risalah Kediri dealing with the classroom implementation of the findings. The second one is addressed to the foreign language teaching researchers.
1)    The classroom implementation of the findings
Since the implementation of using series of pictures has been proven to be successful in improving their ability to speak English, it is strongly suggested that such teaching strategy “improving speaking ability using series of pictures” could be continually implemented in teaching speaking.
2)    Further researchers
The emphasis of conducting this research was the improving speaking ability using series of picture. The result of this research showed that speaking ability could get significantly improvement gain.







BIBLIOGRAPHY


Arikunto, Suharsimi, 1992. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta : PT. Renika Cipta.
Blundell, J, Higgens, J, and Middlemiss, N. 1982. Function in English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brown, R. S, and Nation, P. 1997. Teaching Speaking: Suggestion for the Classroom. Online.http://langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp./jalt/pub/tlt/97/Ap/speaking.html;Last modified: April 11, 2007.
Cragon, John F. and David W. Wright. 1999. Communication in a Small Group:  Theory, Process, Skill. America: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Depdiknass. 2003. Pedoman Teknis Pelaksanaan Classroom Action Research. Jakarta.
Djuprianto. 1991. Teknik Pengajaran Percakapan. Malang: Ya3 Malang.
Doff, Adrian. 1988. Teach English, Teacher Training and Development. Bendigo: Cambridge University Press.
Elliott et al . 1996. Educational Psychology, Effective Teaching, Effective Learning.
Ellis, Rod. 1988. Undestanding Second Language Acquisition. New York: Oxford
Glanas, Gloria J, Katherine Adams, and John K. Brilhart. 2001. Effective Group Discussion: Theory and Practice. America: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Harris, David P. 1977. Testing English as a Second Language. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Hoover, Judith D. 2002. Effective Small Group and Team Communication. Orlando: Harcourt.
IKIP PGRI Madiun. 2006. Dharma Pendidikan: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran. Nganjuk.
Nazir, Mohammad. 1983. Metode Penelitian. Jakarta Timur: Balai Aksara.
Nunan, David P. 1991. Learning Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for Teacher. New York. Prentice Hall.
Nurhadi. 2001. Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL). Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang.
Rivers, Wilga M. 1968. Teaching Foreign Language Skills. New York: The University of Chicago.
Stemerding, A. H. S. 1973. Teknik Rapat dan Diskusi Kelompok. Jakarta: Balai Aksara.
Wright, A. 1989. Pictures for Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zaini, Hisyam, Bernaudy Munthe, Sekar Ayu Aryani. Strategi Pembelajaran Aktif di Perguruan Tinggi.

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar

Catatan: Hanya anggota dari blog ini yang dapat mengirim komentar.